Official Definition #1:
According to the Word Federation of Neurology, dyslexia
is: "a disorder manifested by difficulty in learning
to read despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence
and sociocultural opportunity."
Official Definition #2:
the International Dyslexia Association's Committee of
Members in November, 1994, "Dyslexia is a neurologically-based,
often familial, disorder which interferes with the acquisition
and processing of language. Varying in degrees of severity,
it is manifested by difficulties in receptive and expressive
language, including phonological processing, in reading,
writing, spelling, handwriting, and sometimes in arithmetic.
Dyslexia is not a result of lack of motivation, sensory
impairment, inadequate instructional or environmental
opportunities, or other limiting conditions, but may
occur together with these conditions. Although dyslexia
is life-long, individuals with dyslexia frequently respond
successfully to timely and appropriate intervention."
Dyslexia has to do with how the brain organizes
what the eyes see and the ears hear. The condition is
such that traditional methods of teaching reading will
not work with a person with dyslexia. However, dyslexics
may be taught to read and write with proper instruction.
This usually involves multi-sensory approaches as used
by AVKO, Orton-Gillingham, Slingerland, Spalding tutors,
Official Definition #3:
the International Dyslexia Association's Research Committee
in November 1994, "Dyslexia is one of several distinct
learning disabilities. It is a specific language-based
disorder of constitutional origin characterized by difficulties
in single word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient
phonological processing abilities. These difficulties
in single word decoding are often unexpected in relation
to age and other cognitive and academic abilities; they
are not the result of generalized developmental disability
or sensory impairment. Dyslexia is manifested by variable
difficulty with different forms of language, often including,
in addition to problems reading, a conspicuous problem
with acquiring proficiency in writing and spelling."
If someone has normal intelligence but has severe
problems learning to read and write despite "conventional"
instruction, that person is dyslexic.